"Environmental Architecture¨": Five principles of an environmental architecture (Thomas A. Fisher, AIA, November, 1992):
• Healthful Interior Environment. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that materials and building systems do not emit toxic substances and gasses into the interior atmosphere. Additional measures are to be taken to clean and revitalize interior air with filtration and plantings.
• Energy Efficiency. All possible measures are to be taken to ensure that the building's use of energy is minimal. Cooling, heating and lighting systems are to use methods and products that conserve or eliminate energy use.
• Ecologically Benign Materials. All possible measures are to be taken to use building materials and products that minimize destruction of the global environment. Wood is to be selected based on non destructive forestry practices. Other materials and products are to be considered based on the toxic waste out put of production.
• Environmental Form. All possible measures are to be taken to relate the form and plan of the design to the site, the region and the climate. Measures are to be taken to "heal" and augment the ecology of the site. Accomodations are to be made for recycling and energy efficiency. Measures are to be taken to relate the form of building to a harmonious relationship between the inhabitants and nature.
• Good Design. All possible measures are to be taken to achieve an efficient, long lasting and elegant relationship of use areas, circulation, building form, mechanical systems and construction technology. Symbolic relationships with appropriate history, the Earth and spiritual principles are to be searched for and expressed. Finished buildings shall be well built, easy to use and beautiful.
Architect William McDonough defined the breadth of what Green Building is:
• The Hannover Principles
Living buildings will:
• Harvest all their own water and energy needs on site.
• Be adapted specifically to site and climate and evolve as conditions change.
• Operate pollution-free and generate no wastes that aren't useful for some other process in the building or immediate environment.
• Promote the health and well-being of all inhabitants, as a healthy ecosystem does.
• Be comprise of integrated systems that maximize efficiency and comfort.
• Improve the health and diversity of the local ecosystem rather than degrade it.
• Be beautiful and inspire us to dream.
2. "Ecological Building", Jason F. McLennan, BNIM Architects.
Ecology is the science of the relationship and interaction of living organisms with their inanimate (e.g. climate, soil) and their animate environment, as well as the study of resource and energy management in the biosphere and its sub-categories. It is also the study of the detrimental effects of modern civilization on the environment, with a view toward prevention or reversal through conservation.
A basic parametre is the "Economy" aimint at a careful, thrifty management of resources, such as money, materials, or labor and an orderly, functional arrangement of parts; on organized system to ensure efficiency, sparing, or conservative use.
The "Ecological Building" is also a movement in contemporary architecture. This movement aims to create environmentally friendly, energy-efficient buildings and developments by effectively managing natural resources. This entails passively and actively harnessing solar energy and using materials which, in their manufacture, application, and disposal, do the least possible damage to the so-called 'free resources' water, ground, and air.
Major Areas are: Environment (Air-Free air, Natural ventilation, Wind force, Energy content, Stack effect, Solar energy, diffuse radiation, Solar energy, direct radiation, Soil, Aquifer, Heat storage, Cool storage, underwater, Cold energy, Heat energy, Earth/rock, Geothermal cooling, Heat energy, Water surfaces, Lake, Pump water or greywater, River, Sea, Building Fabric
Facade and roof, Transparent insulating material, Photovoltaics, Absorber surface, Storage masses, Planted surfaces, Rainwater, Dayligth elements, Collectors, Construction, Passive solar absorber, Heat exchanger elements, Night cooling by outside air, Atria, Green zones, Evaporative cooling, Passive solar energy, Heat buffer, and in general Building Technology.