REDUCING ENERGY USE IN BUILDINGS: Εuropeans need to use less energy. Our consump-tion is rising every year and we are growing evermore dependent on supplies of oil and gas fromoutside our own borders. And our commitments toreduce greenhouse gas emissions – to 8 % below 1990 levelsby 2008–12 – under the Kyoto Protocol require us to use lessoil,gas and coal. In 2000,the European Commission adopted a Green Papersetting out a strategy to address these two problems. Although a switch to greater use of domestic renewableenergy sources will help to reduce emissions and energyimports,a significant effort also needs to be made by allenergy consumers to reduce their energy use. Transport and industry are both big energy consumers. Butour buildings account for some 40 % of European energyconsumption. Our demands for lighting,heating and cooling,and hot water in our homes,workplaces and leisure facilities,consume more energy than either transport or industry.• Two thirds of energy used in European buildings isaccounted for by households; their consumption isgrowing every year as rising living standards are reflectedin greater use of air conditioning and heating systems.• 10 million boilers in European homes are more than20 years old; their replacement would save 5 % of energyused for heating.• 30-50 % of lighting energy could be saved in offices,commercial buildings and leisure facilities by using themost efficient systems and technologies.• Half of the projected increase in energy needed for airconditioning – expected to double by 2020 – could besaved through higher standards for equipment.Published by: European Commission, Directorate-General for Energyand Transport,B-1049 Brusselshttp://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.html© European Communities,2003Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged.Text completed on 8 September 2003Photo courtesy : ZefaTHE WAY FORWARDMember States have to incorporate the requirements of thenew directive in national legislation by January 2006.As theyprepare for this,national officials and experts will meetregularly to share information and encourage cooperation indeveloping standardised energy performance measure-ments and norms for buildings.Learn more at http://europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/index_en.htmlThe European Commission will assist stakeholders in raisingawareness of the issues related to these measures.Inparticular,the ‘Intelligent energy – Europe’ programme(2003–06) will provide support for the implementation ofthe directive.
See http://europa.eu.int/comm/energy/intelligent/index_en.htmContact:European CommissionDirectorate-General for Energy and Transport Unit D.1– Regulatory Policy and Promotion of New Energies and Demand Management, B-1049 Brussels TRENfirstname.lastname@example.orgTE(1) Directive 2002/91/EC,OJ L1 of 4.1.2003.BETTER BUILDINGS EUROPEAN COMMISSION
MEASURING ENERGYPERFORMANCEQ Apply minimum standards across Europe,acommon methodology for measuring theenergy performance of buildings will bedeveloped,providing clear and comparableinformation on the real energy use in buildings.It shouldtake account of all the factors affecting energy consump-tion,and will classify buildings according to their type,size and use:residential,offices,schools,etc.Measuring a building’s energy performance will encom-pass aspects such as thermal insulation,the heatingsystem,air conditioning,natural ventilation,and passivelighting and heating from the sun.Positive factors may include solar heating or powersystems,district heating and combined heat and powerinstallations.Given that very different climatic conditions apply acrossEurope,the local situation and environment will be fullytaken into account in measuring energy performance.REGULAR INSPECTIONember States will establish a system of regularinspections of boilers and air conditioningequipment – in larger households,multipleoccupancy houses,and commercial and publicbuildings – since badly tuned equipment can causeexcessive energy consumption and/or carbon dioxideemissions.Regular inspections will be required for boilers fired bynon-renewable liquid and solid fuel with an outputgreater than 20 kW.Such boilers with an output greaterthan 100 kW must be inspected at least every two years,while for gas-fired boilers this interval may be up to everyfour years.Heating installations larger than 20 kW and more than15 years old will be the subject of one-off inspections ofthe complete system.This assessment will advise the useron possible replacement and/or modifications to theinstallation.Regular inspections will also be required for all airconditioning systems with an output greater than 12 kW.CERTIFYING ENERGYEFFICIENCYo give prospective owners or tenants betterinformation on the expected running costs ofa building or apartment,sellers or landlordswill have to provide them with a recent energyperformance certificate.With buyers and prospective tenants better informed,builders and landlords will have greater incentive toincorporate energy-efficient technologies and designsinto their buildings,in return for lower running costs.National authorities will include reference values to allowthe comparison of energy performance certificates.Certificates must also include recommendations forimproving energy performance.Energy performance certificates will have to be displayedin large buildings (over 1 000 m2) regularly visited by thepublic,to raise awareness among citizens of the issue ofenergy efficiency in their local community.Recommendedand current indoor temperatures may also be displayed.APPLYING STANDARDSU Member States will set,and regularly review,minimum energy performance standards,takingaccount of local climatic conditions,for differentcategories of both new and existing buildings.Energy performance standards will apply to all newbuildings built from January 2006.In addition,for largerbuildings (over 1 000 m2),a full feasibility assessment ofalternative heating and energy supply systems must bemade before construction starts.Existing buildings larger than 1 000 m2will also be subjectto energy performance improvements when they undergomajor refurbishment or renovations.Their energy perform-ance should be upgraded as much as is technically andeconomically feasible in accordance with national perform-ance standards.Certain buildings such as historic monuments,places ofworship,temporary buildings,agricultural buildings andsummer holiday homes may be exempted from thesestandards.